The results of kidney transplantation in a variety of renal diseases have been analyzed. The diseases causing end-stage kidney failure in recipients were Alport syndrome, amyloidosis, cystinosis, diabetes mellitus, Fabry disease, familial nephritis, gout, medullary cystic disease, oxalosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The data indicate that renal transplantation is justifiable and parallels functional results for the more common causes of end-stage renal disease in all but Fabry disease and oxalosis. Although Fabry disease did not recur in any grafted kidney, only three patients have a functioning graft one year after transplantation. From a group of ten patients with oxalosis who received a total of 14 kidneys, only one survives. In no other metabolic disease, except one instance of primary amyloidosis, did the metabolic disease notably affect the transplant as it did in oxalosis.