We report the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment for 4 to 10 years in 15 prepubertal non-GH-deficient short children (10 boys, 5 girls, aged 7.4 to 13.2 years). In 7 patients, GH was administered at a dosage of 0.5 U/kg per week (group 1: 4 boys, 3 girls) and in 8 patients (group 2: 6 boys, 2 girls) at a dosage of 1.0 U/kg per week. After the first year, mean linear growth velocity had significantly increased in both groups. The increase in growth velocity was sustained during the first 4 years and then declined to pretreatment values in the majority of subjects. Treatment with GH did not induce an earlier onset of puberty, but there was a tendency toward faster skeletal maturation. The mean final height standard deviation score (SDS) was similar in the two groups and was significantly higher than the height SDS for chronologic age before treatment, but it did not differ from mean pretreatment predicted adult height SDS nor from mean target height SDS in both groups. Final height was significantly correlated with target height in both groups. These preliminary observations indicate that GH treatment does not generally increase final height over target height in short non-GH-deficient children.