What we know about leadership. Effectiveness and personality

Am Psychol. 1994 Jun;49(6):493-504. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.49.6.493.


Although psychologists know a great deal about leadership, persons who make decisions about real leaders seem largely to ignore their accumulated wisdom. In an effort to make past research more accessible, interpretable, and relevant to decision makers, this article defines leadership and then answers nine questions that routinely come up when practical decisions are made about leadership (e.g., whom to appoint, how to evaluate them, when to terminate them.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Leadership*
  • Organizational Culture
  • Personality*