Intraocular pressure was artificially elevated for eight hours in eight owl monkeys. The first permanent effect (produced at a perfusion pressure of plus 15 mm Hg) was partial necrosis of iris stroma and ciliary processes, associated with microscopic lesions in the photoreceptors and retina pigment epithelium around the disc and in the retinal periphery. At a slightly higher pressure, visual nerve fibers in the retina and optic nerve and their ganglion cells were affected. Simultaneously, the outer retinal layers showed damage to the pigment epithelium, photoreceptors, and other nuclear layers. At even higher pressures, nearly all the other intraocular tissues were affected except for Müller cells, astroglia in the optic nerve head, epithelium of the pars plana, and the pigment cells of the choroid. The possibility is raised of a nonischemic pressure-induced mechanism for destruction of disc astrocytes in human chronic glaucoma.