In vivo studies of cellular energy state, pH, and sodium in rat liver after thermal injury

J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994 Apr;76(4):1507-11. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1994.76.4.1507.


In vivo 31P- and 23Na-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure phosphorus metabolites, intracellular pH, cytosolic free Mg2+, and intracellular Na+ in the liver of rats 24 h after 40% total body surface area full-thickness burn injury. Studies were performed during infusion of thulium (III) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N",N"'-tetra(methylenephosphonate), which served as the Na+ shift agent. Compared with the sham-burn group, there was a significant increase in hepatic intracellular Na+ along with a decrease in intracellular pH and free Mg2+. The ratio of intra- to extra-cellular Na+ increased, indicating a decreased Na+ gradient that may determine the hepatic transmembrane potential difference. Hepatic beta-ATP/P(i) also significantly decreased, which suggests that either ATP utilization is significantly accelerated or ATP synthesis is inhibited after the thermal injury. Of the cations measured (Na+, Mg2+, H+), the change in intracellular Na+ was most dramatic. This study demonstrates that major burn injury may cause profound changes in hepatic bioenergetics and ionic metabolism 24 h after injury and that intracellular Na+ may be a sensitive indicator of hepatic dysfunction 24 h after injury. Because these animals tolerated the shift reagent, thulium (III) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N",N"'-tetra(methylenephosphonate), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove valuable in monitoring intracellular cations in the liver after major injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Body Water / metabolism
  • Burns / metabolism*
  • Burns / pathology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Liver / injuries*
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Liver / pathology
  • Magnesium / metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Membrane Potentials / physiology
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Phosphorus Isotopes
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sodium / blood
  • Sodium / metabolism*
  • Sodium Isotopes
  • Thulium


  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Phosphorus Isotopes
  • Sodium Isotopes
  • thulium(III) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetramethylenephosphonate
  • Thulium
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium