We studied a patient with paraneoplastic vasculitic neuropathy (PVN) associated with a carcinoma of the common bile duct. Immunohistochemical analysis of the biopsied sural nerve showed that the cellular infiltrates in the vascular lesions were composed primarily of CD8-positive T lymphocytes and macrophages. Pathogenic significance of the T-cell-mediated immunological reaction was suggested. Post-mortem examination revealed the absence of systemic vasculitis, which may be a characteristic feature of PVN. The patient responded to immunosuppressive treatment. We discuss the efficacy and the risk of immunosuppressive therapy for PVN.