Between July 1974 and October 1988 19 consecutive infants (mean age 2.7 months, range 5 days to 11.7 months) underwent surgical correction for persistent truncus arteriosus by one surgeon (J.L.M.). Continuity between the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries was achieved with an antibiotic-sterilized aortic homograft (diameter 13-18 mm) together with patch closure of the ventricular septal defect. There were 3 early postoperative deaths (16%): 1 patient had severe aortic regurgitation, the other 2 had preoperative cardiac arrests. Of the latter, 1 had suffered severe cerebral damage, and the other developed recurrent pulmonary hypertensive crises and low cardiac output. The 16 survivors have been followed for 3.1-17.3 years (mean 7.8 years). Four patients required subsequent replacement of the homograft for stenosis, aortic valve replacement for regurgitation, or both (3.0, 4.0, 8.5, and 12.0 years postoperatively). Of the 16 survivors, 15 are in NYHA class I. Of the 13 patients who have not had aortic valve surgery, 9 have no evidence of stenosis or regurgitation. In the 14 children with the original homograft the median of the residual peak gradient across the right ventricular outflow tract is 15 mmHg (range 10-40 mmHg), and no patient has severe homograft regurgitation at follow-up. Repair of persistent truncus arteriosus has been achieved with low early mortality and no late mortality, which reflects excellent long-term function of the homograft. Furthermore, if truncal valve function is good at presentation, patients are unlikely to require aortic valve surgery.