Coordination changes associated with practice of a soccer kick

Res Q Exerc Sport. 1994 Jun;65(2):93-9. doi: 10.1080/02701367.1994.10607603.


The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in coordination associated with practice of a soccer kick. Video records were collected on 6 novice, right-footed soccer players prior to and after 20 regularly scheduled kicking practice sessions. Three experienced players were also videotaped for comparison. Movement of the right leg was digitized and analyzed using motion analysis software. As a result of practice, subjects were able to significantly increase the maximum resultant linear velocity of the foot, and these increases were accompanied by changes in the pattern of coordination underlying the movement. These changes were assessed qualitatively through the topological characteristics of the relative motions of the hip and knee and quantitatively through three different timing variables. The results provide some support for Bernstein's (1967) ideas on the acquisition of skilled behavior as well as for the two-stage model of motor learning proposed by Newell (1985).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ankle Joint / physiology
  • Female
  • Foot / physiology
  • Hip Joint / physiology
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / physiology
  • Leg / physiology
  • Male
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Muscles / physiology
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology
  • Range of Motion, Articular / physiology
  • Shoulder Joint / physiology
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Soccer / physiology*
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • Time Factors
  • Video Recording