Several studies indicate that xylitol is not metabolized to acids either in pure cultures of oral microorganisms in vitro or in dental plaque in vivo. Chronic consumption of xylitol-sweetened chewing gum resulted in reduction of dental plaque, suppression of mutans streptococci, and reduced adhesiveness of plaque. So far, four field studies with regimens including chewing gum and other xylitol-containing products and four clinical trials have been carried out. All of the latter studies showed that a daily intake of two to three pieces of xylitol gum resulted in a defined reduction of caries. There are indications that regular and prolonged use of xylitol chewing gum may have a caries-preventive effect.