Induction of gene expression by heat shock versus osmotic stress

Am J Physiol. 1994 Jul;267(1 Pt 2):F28-34. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.1994.267.1.F28.


Elevated temperature rapidly increases expression of genes for heat shock proteins (HSP), including HSP-70. The response is presumably triggered by denaturation of cell proteins and helps in their renaturation. Hypertonicity may also denature proteins, but the protective response, which is accumulation of compatible organic osmolytes [including betaine and inositol in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells], apparently differs and is slow. Recently, hypertonicity was found also to increase expression of HSP-70 in MDCK cells, a response proposed to provide protection until organic osmolytes can accumulate. Our purpose was to examine whether 1) a gene involved in accumulation of organic osmolytes also responds to heat stress and 2) whether accumulation of organic osmolytes affects expression of HSP-70. We find that 1) the betaine transporter mRNA, which is greatly increased by hypertonicity (515 vs. 315 mosmol), is unaffected by high temperature (42 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C); 2) hypertonicity-induced increases in HSP-70 and betaine transporter mRNA are much greater when the medium (and cell) contain no betaine and no inositol than when high concentrations of these are present; and 3) high betaine greatly inhibits the increase in HSP-70 mRNA at high temperature. We conclude the following. 1) Although heat shock and betaine transporter genes both respond to hypertonicity, the betaine transporter is not a HSP. 2) Accumulation of organic osmolytes attenuates the HSP-70 response to hypertonicity, as it might if the HSP-70 expression were a temporizing response. 3) Betaine inhibits HSP-70 response to elevated temperature, presumably by its known effect of stabilizing proteins.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Betaine / metabolism
  • Betaine / pharmacology
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Line
  • Dogs
  • GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Gene Expression*
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Hypertonic Solutions*
  • Kidney / cytology
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Osmosis
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Shock / genetics*
  • Stress, Physiological / chemically induced*
  • Stress, Physiological / genetics*


  • Carrier Proteins
  • GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Hypertonic Solutions
  • RNA, Messenger
  • betaine plasma membrane transport proteins
  • Betaine