Ethanol-dependent mice were treated with the 5-HT3 antagonist MDL 72222 after withdrawal from ethanol. Treatment with unit doses (0, 5.6, 10, and 17.0 mg/kg) of MDL 72222 at 0, 4, and 7 hr after withdrawal dose-dependently exacerbated the severity of ethanol withdrawal seizures. Treatment with a single dose (17 mg/kg) of MDL 72222 at 5 hr after withdrawal also exacerbated the severity of ethanol withdrawal seizures. Ethanol naive mice treated with MDL 72222 (56 mg/kg) did not display any seizures. Treatment with another 5-HT3 antagonist, ICS 205-930 (23 and 46 mg/kg), or the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin, did not affect ethanol withdrawal seizures. The findings suggest MDL 72222 selectively enhances sensitivity to withdrawal seizures following chronic ethanol exposure.