Di-4-ANEPPS causes photodynamic damage to isolated cardiomyocytes

Pflugers Arch. 1994 Apr;426(6):548-51. doi: 10.1007/BF00378533.


Action potential recordings from isolated guinea pig ventricular cells in the whole-cell recording mode were used to study the toxic and photodynamic properties of the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye di-4-ANEPPS. Staining of the cardiomyocytes with di-4-ANEPPS (30 or 60 microM; 10 min) did not alter the action potential shape. When the stained cells were illuminated (1W/cm2) severe effects on the action potential were observed. There was a prolongation of the action potential duration, occurrence of early afterdepolarizations, reduction of the membrane resting potential and eventually inexcitability. Addition of the antioxidant catalase (100 IU/ml) to the extracellular solution delayed the onset of these effects, suggesting that reactive-oxygen-intermediates take part in di-4-ANEPPS induced photodynamic damage. Since di-4-ANEPPS is a very important tool for optical membrane potential recordings in heart tissue and single cardiomyocytes catalase might be useful in suppressing photodynamic damage during optical potential recordings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / drug effects
  • Action Potentials / radiation effects
  • Animals
  • Catalase / pharmacology
  • Electrophysiology
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Heart / physiology*
  • Heart / radiation effects
  • Heart Ventricles / cytology
  • Heart Ventricles / drug effects
  • Heart Ventricles / radiation effects
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Light
  • Membrane Potentials / drug effects
  • Membrane Potentials / radiation effects
  • Myocardium / cytology
  • Pyridinium Compounds / toxicity*


  • Pyridinium Compounds
  • 1-(3-sulfonatopropyl)-4-(beta)(2-(di-n-butylamino)-6-naphthylvinyl)pyridinium betaine
  • Catalase