Head repositioning accuracy (HRA) after full range active motion was evaluated in 60 cervicalgic patients. The mean angular error was 7.7 degrees +/- 3.3 (mean +/- SD) and 82% were outside a threshold value of 4.5 degrees. After randomization 30 patients followed a rehabilitation program based on eye-head coupling (RG) and 30 served as a control group (CG). At 10 week follow-up, a greater gain in HRA was observed in the RG (2 degrees +/- 2.7, mean +/- SD) than in the CG (0 +/- 2.6, mean +/- SD) (p = 0.005). Clinical parameters (pain, drug intake, range of motion, and self assessed functional improvement) were also more improved in the RG than in the CG. These data emphasize the role of a neck proprioception alteration in chronic neck pain and suggest that a rehabilitation program based on eye-head coupling should be included in most medical management of cervicalgic patients.