Induction of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-li) and stimulation of feeding by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (2,5-AM) require the vagus nerve

Brain Res. 1994 May 16;646(1):53-64. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(94)90057-4.


The antimetabolic fructose analogue, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (2,5-AM), stimulates feeding. Selective hepatic branch vagotomy has been shown to block feeding induced by low 2,5-AM doses. However, hepatic vagal fibers are not the sole mediators of 2,5-AM-induced feeding, since hepatic branch vagotomy does not impair feeding induced by higher doses of 2,5-AM. To further evaluate the role of the vagus in the response to 2,5-AM, we examined the effect of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on feeding induced by a high 2,5-AM dose (500 mg/kg). In addition, we assessed the ability of 2,5-AM (300 and 500 mg/kg) to induce Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-li) in the brain in sham-operated (SHAM), hepatic branch vagotomized (HBV) and total subdiaphragmatic vagotomized (TSDV) rats. Both doses of 2,5-AM, but not control solutions, induced Fos-li in the area postrema (AP), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and lateral parabrachial nucleus (1PBN). Very weak immunoreactivity was present in the central nucleus of the amygdala and none was observed in the locus coeruleus or paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The effect of the lower 2,5-AM dose on Fos-li was blocked by HBV. The high dose effect was blocked by TSDV but not by HBV. Feeding induced by the high dose of 2,5-AM was also blocked by TSDV. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of feeding by 2,5-AM is dependent on the vagus nerve. Hepatic branch fibers may have the lowest threshold for activation, but fibers in other vagal branches independently mediate induction of c-fos and stimulate food intake at higher doses of the analogue.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Diaphragm / innervation
  • Eating / drug effects*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Liver / innervation
  • Male
  • Mannitol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Mannitol / pharmacology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Vagotomy
  • Vagus Nerve / physiology*


  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • Mannitol
  • 2,5-anhydromannitol