We have identified a protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell extracts that specifically binds the single-stranded (ss) Chlamydomonas G-strand telomere sequence (TTTTAGGG)n. This protein, called G-strand binding protein (GBP), binds DNA with two or more ss TTTTAGGG repeats. A single polypeptide (M(r) 34 kDa) in Chlamydomonas extracts binds (TTTTAGGG)n, and a cDNA encoding this G-strand binding protein was identified by its expression of a G-strand binding activity. The cDNA (GBP1) sequence predicts a protein product (Gbp1p) that includes two domains with extensive homology to RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a region rich in glycine, alanine and arginine. Antibody raised against a peptide within Gbp1p reacted with both the 34 kDa polypeptide and bound G-strand DNA-protein complexes in gel retardation assays, indicating that GBP1 encodes GBP. Unlike vertebrate heteronuclear ribonucleoproteins, GBP does not bind the cognate telomere RNA sequence UUUUAGGG in gel retardation, North-Western or competition assays. Thus, GBP is a new type of candidate telomere binding protein that binds, in vitro, to ss G-strand telomere DNA, the primer for telomerase, and has domains that have homology to RNA binding domains in other proteins.