Prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection among sewage workers in Singapore

Epidemiol Infect. 1994 Aug;113(1):121-8. doi: 10.1017/s0950268800051530.


To determine whether or not occupational exposure to sewage is associated with a higher seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, 600 sewage workers in Singapore were tested for total (IgG and IgM) antibody to HAV by enzyme immunoassay. Using logistic regression with stepwise procedure, the adjusted seroprevalence of sewage workers was 2.2 times higher than that of another non-occupationally exposed population group. Seroprevalence was significantly correlated with age and educational levels, the association being independent of the occupational association. The epidemiological data in the study show that sewage workers have an increased occupational risk of acquiring HAV infection and should be protected by active immunization.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Hepatitis A / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis A Antibodies
  • Hepatitis Antibodies / blood
  • Hepatovirus / immunology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sewage*
  • Singapore / epidemiology


  • Hepatitis A Antibodies
  • Hepatitis Antibodies
  • Sewage