Valid parameters for investigation of the pupillary light reflex in normal and diabetic subjects shown by factor analysis and partial correlation

Diabetologia. 1994 Apr;37(4):414-9. doi: 10.1007/BF00408480.


Pupillary test data of 103 normal and 119 diabetic subjects (47 IDDM, 72 NIDDM) were evaluated by factor analysis. From a total of nine pupillary parameters three factors were extracted in the analysis. Factor 1 represents maximal pupillary area, contraction velocity at 1 s, dilation velocity at 6 s and minimal pupillary area--static and simple dynamic parameters; factor 2 amplitude of pupillary unrest, area under the detrended curve of pupillary unrest and period of pupillary unrest--parameters of pupillary unrest; factor 3 fusion frequency of pupillary response following flicker stimuli and latency time of pupillary light reflex--second order dynamic parameters. Factor analysis was then applied to investigate diabetic patients with a high percentage of autonomic neuropathic participants (about 39% had pupillary and about 35% had cardiorespiratory function disorders), which revealed the same three factors as those identified in normal subjects. Furthermore, an age-related database of parameters of pupillary unrest is given. It demonstrates that normal subjects and diabetic patients did not differ in the period of pupillary unrest (normal vs diabetic (mean +/- SEM): 1550 +/- 29 vs 1536 +/- 27 ms; 2p > 0.5). The difference in amplitude (47.8 +/- 2.8 vs 41.0 +/- 2.6% percentile; 2p = 0.071) and area under the detrended curve of pupillary unrest (47.9 +/- 2.8 vs 40.8 +/- 2.6% percentile, 2p = 0.062) seems to show a trend but was not significant. In conclusion, factor analysis revealed three different pupillary test factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Light*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pupil / physiology
  • Reflex, Pupillary / physiology*