This paper reviews research and clinical literature relevant to the question of disclosure of diagnosis to children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The model of pediatric oncology, in which much research already exists, is evaluated for its applicability to HIV and AIDS. Although children seem to benefit from early disclosure of diagnosis of life-threatening illnesses, special cultural and social conditions complicate the question with regard to HIV and AIDS. These conditions include the parent-to-child transmission of HIV and the unique social stigma of having HIV because of its association with homosexuality, drug use, and sexual conduct. The paper presents existing treatment approaches and suggests avenues for further research.