Carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures in indoor ice skating rinks

J Sports Sci. 1994 Jun;12(3):279-83. doi: 10.1080/02640419408732173.


Exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were determined in seven enclosed ice skating rinks and an outdoor rink. The uptake of CO was also determined by the difference in alveolar CO concentration of the non-smoking hockey players before and after games. Carbon monoxide concentrations in enclosed rinks ranged from 4 to 117 ppm and NO2 concentrations from 342 to 2729 ppb for 2 h hockey games. The CO uptakes were linearly related to the ambient CO concentrations. Alveolar CO of the hockey players increased on average by 0.53 ppm per 1 ppm CO exposure over 2 h. Considering the CO and NO2 levels currently measured in enclosed ice skating rinks, indoor air quality guidelines or standards should be established. It is recommended that 1 h maximum allowable limits of 20 ppm CO and 250 ppb NO2 be established.

MeSH terms

  • Absorption
  • Adult
  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
  • Carbon Monoxide / analysis*
  • Carbon Monoxide / pharmacokinetics
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • Hockey
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / analysis*
  • Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
  • Pulmonary Alveoli / metabolism
  • Skating*
  • Vital Capacity


  • Air Pollutants
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Nitrogen Dioxide