The organophosphates trichlorfon, dichlorvos, dimethoate, soman, triortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and the diethoxy-analogue of trichlorfon (O,O-diethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethylphosphonate, ethyl-trichlorfon), were administered to guinea pigs between day 42 and 46 of gestation. When the offsprings were examined at birth, there was a severe reduction in brain weight in the case of trichlorfon and dichlorvos, but not after treatment with the other organophosphates. The reduction in weight was most pronounced for cerebellum, medulla oblongata, thalamus/hypothalamus and quadrigemina. The effect was less marked for cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Since soman, a potent anticholinesterase, and TOCP, an inhibitor of neuropathy target esterase, did not show any effects, this excludes that the brain hypoplasia can be caused by inhibition of these two enzymes. Further, the lack of effect with ethyl-trichlorfon has shed some light on the part of the trichlorfon molecule which could be involved in the formation of the hypoplasia. It is suggested that alkylation of DNA may be involved in the development of the lesion. The possible consequences for a teratogenic effect of trichlorfon and dichlorvos on humans are discussed.