The two major classes of antigen receptors on murine B lymphocytes, mIgM and mIgD, are both contained in a complex with two additional molecules, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which permit signal transduction. Accordingly, early biochemical events after antigen binding to either receptor are similar; biological effects, however, are different. Here, we describe three newly discovered intracellular proteins of 32, 37 and 41 kDa molecular mass, that are non-covalently associated with mIgM, but not with mIgD. These proteins coprecipitate with mIgM in Triton X-100 and Nonidet P-40, but not in digitonin lysates. In addition, mIgM is to some extent associated with 29 and 31 kDa proteins that are predominantly associated with mIgD (see accompanying paper). Amino acid sequencing of p32 and p37 identified p32 as mouse prohibitin; this was corroborated by Western blot analysis with antibodies specific for rat prohibitin. p37 is a newly discovered protein. cDNA clones for both proteins were isolated and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of p32 is identical to that of rat prohibitin. p37 is highly homologous to p32. Since prohibitin was identified as an inhibitor of cell proliferation, its association with mIgM, but not mIgD, could explain the different biological events elicited after engagement of each receptor.