None of the endocrine causes for hypertension is more fascinating and challenging for the clinician than pheochromocytoma. Its protean manifestations can make diagnosis difficult, yet its sinister prognostic implications demand prompt recognition and expert management. Diagnosis depends on clinical suspicion, demonstration of high levels of free catecholamines in the plasma or urine, or high localization of the tumor by appropriate imaging techniques that include CT scanning, MR imaging, and 131I-MIBG scintigraphy. Surgical extirpation is the treatment of choice unless the risk of operation is overwhelming or distant metastasis has already occurred. Successful outcome demands a team approach, taking advantage of the experience, skill, and expertise of the surgeon, anesthesiologist, and internist.