Oxygen flux measurements are critical at low rates of. respiration and at oxygen tensions below air saturation. Difficulties are primarily due to increased oxygen diffusion and consumption processes which may occur in conventional closed respirometric chambers. To avoid measurement errors encountered with standard equipment, a new type of oxygraph was developed. This instrument provides reliable quantification of oxygen flux in small organisms, tissue samples, cells, isolated mitochondria, and chloroplasts. The instrument is available commercially or can be rebuilt in a well-equipped laboratory workshop.