Carbonated beverages, dietary calcium, the dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio, and bone fractures in girls and boys

J Adolesc Health. 1994 May;15(3):210-5. doi: 10.1016/1054-139x(94)90506-1.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the association between carbonated beverage consumption, as well as other nutritional intake, and the occurrence of bone fractures in girls (mean +/- SD) 14.3 yr +/- 1.8 and boys 14.6 yr +/- 1.6.

Methods: Food-frequency questionnaires and medical histories were obtained from 76 girls and 51 boys. Subjects were recruited from a swimming club and physicians' offices; their physical characteristics are representative of the normal adolescent population.

Results: The data show a strong association between cola beverage consumption and bone fractures in girls [the adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21, 10.75; p = 0.022]. High intake of dietary calcium was protective (adjusted OR = 0.284; 95% CI 0.087, 0.920; p = 0.036). No association between the non-cola drinks and bone fractures was found. In boys, only total caloric intake was associated with the risk of bone fractures; the association was inverse.

Conclusion: The high consumption of carbonated beverages and the declining consumption of milk are of great public health significance for girls and women because of their proneness to osteoporosis in later life.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Calcium, Dietary*
  • Carbonated Beverages / adverse effects*
  • Child
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Diet Surveys
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Fractures, Bone / epidemiology*
  • Fractures, Bone / etiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medical History Taking
  • Odds Ratio
  • Phosphorus, Dietary / adverse effects*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Phosphorus, Dietary