We established two mouse interspecific backcross DNA panels, one containing 94 N2 animals from the cross (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus)F1 x C57BL/6J, and another from 94 N2 animals from the reciprocal backcross (C57BL/6J x SPRET/Ei)F1 x SPRET/Ei. We prepared large quantities of DNA from most tissues of each animal to create a community resource of interspecific backcross DNA for use by laboratories interested in mapping loci in the mouse. Initial characterization of the genetic maps of both panels has been completed. We used MIT SSLP markers, proviral loci, and several other sequence-defined genes to anchor our maps to other published maps. The BSB panel map (from the backcross to C57BL/6J) contains 215 loci and is anchored by 45 SSLP and 32 gene sequence loci. The BSS panel map (from the backcross to SPRET/Ei) contains 451 loci and is anchored by 49 SSLP loci, 43 proviral loci, and 60 gene sequence loci. To obtain a high density of markers, we used motif-primed PCR to "fingerprint" the panel DNAs. We constructed two maps, each representing one of the two panels. All new loci can be located with a high degree of certainty on the maps at current marker density. Segregation patterns in these data reveal several examples of transmission ratio distortion and permit analysis of the distribution of crossovers on individual chromosomes.