The smallest gene (S10) of the virus of epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD, serotype 2) is expressed as two proteins in virus-infected cells. By contrast, the non-structural proteins (NS3 and NS3A) encoded in the smallest gene of bluetongue (BT) viruses are difficult to detect in virus-infected cells. The nucleotide sequence of S10 of EHDV-2 contains two in-frame initiation codons which allow for translation of proteins of mol. wt. 25503 and 23921 analogous to NS3 and NS3A of BT viruses. The S10 genes of BT viruses are highly conserved (82%-99%); the nucleotide sequence similarity of S10 of EHDV-2 and BT viruses is about 64%. Some structural features of NS3 and NS3A are conserved in the two viruses, despite the divergence in the amino acid sequences of the proteins. The hydrophobic domains of the proteins and the putative transmembrane sequences are conserved, as are potential glycosylation sites in the proteins. A cluster of proline residues, which is conserved at residues 36-50 in all of the published sequences of NS3 of BT viruses, is conserved exactly in the alignment of the sequence of NS3 of EHDV-2 with that of the BT viruses. An explanation for the differences in expression of NS3/NS3A in EHD and BT viruses was not evident in comparing the nucleotide sequences of S10 of the viruses.