Presentation of endogenous antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. These antigenic peptides derived from the cytoplasmic protein pool are transported by the recently described MHC-encoded transporters (TAP1 and TAP2) into a pre-Golgi region where they take part in the assembly of MHC class I molecules. Using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody (AK1.7) for TAP1, we analyzed 81 colorectal carcinomas, 32 adenomas, and the respective nonneoplastic mucosa. Loss of the transporter molecule (TAP1) was observed in 14% (11 of 81) of the carcinomas, either complete (7 of 11) or focal (4 of 11), whereas adenomas and normal mucosa were always positive. This study adds further information to the understanding of the mechanisms related to the defective presentation of the MHC class I molecules by tumor cells.