Noradrenergic dysregulation during discontinuation of cocaine use in addicts

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 Sep;51(9):713-9. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950090045007.


Background: The primary objective of the study was to prospectively determine possible noradrenergic dysregulation in cocaine addicts by assessing biochemical, behavioral, and cardiovascular responses to intravenous yohimbine hydrochloride during early and late discontinuation of cocaine use.

Methods: Twelve male and two female hospitalized cocaine-dependent subjects (mean +/- SD age, 30.9 +/- 7.3 years) who were not seeking primary treatment for addiction participated voluntarily for monetary remuneration. Following an initial test dose of intranasal cocaine, 2 mg/kg, cocaine addicts received single-blind, monitored cocaine insufflation, 2 mg/kg three times each day, for 3 consecutive days. One to two days (early discontinuation) and 15 to 16 days (late discontinuation) after the last dose of cocaine, subjects received double-blind, randomized intravenous infusions of yohimbine hydrochloride, 0.4 mg/kg, or placebo. Plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG) and plasma cortisol levels, anxiety-related symptoms on clinician- and subject-rated scales, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured throughout each test day. Ten of 14 subjects completed the entire study.

Results: Subjects had a significantly greater placebo-corrected MHPG response to yohimbine during early compared with late discontinuation. Subjects rated themselves significantly more nervous following yohimbine administration during early compared with late discontinuation. Seventy-one percent of subjects experienced a yohimbine-induced panic attack during early discontinuation compared with none during late discontinuation.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide evidence of an underlying dysregulation in noradrenergic function and a vulnerability to panic anxiety during early discontinuation of cocaine use in addicts. Additional investigations of noradrenergic function appear warranted to further clarify derangements associated with cocaine addiction.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adult
  • Cocaine* / administration & dosage
  • Cocaine* / adverse effects
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Insufflation
  • Male
  • Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Norepinephrine / physiology*
  • Panic Disorder / chemically induced
  • Panic Disorder / epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / etiology
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Yohimbine / administration & dosage
  • Yohimbine / pharmacology


  • Yohimbine
  • Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol
  • Cocaine
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Norepinephrine