Results of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) interviews (N = 330) and focus groups (12 groups, 80 participants) addressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS conducted with women living in rural villages in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, from November 1991 to January 1992 are reported. Women had obtained most of their information from television and radio. No AIDS health promotion programs had been targeted specifically to rural women. General knowledge regarding modes of transmission and prevention were good. The majority of women (85.5%) identified at least one known mode of transmission. Prostitution and contaminated needles were seen as the predominant sources of risk by these women. This knowledge, however, had not been applied to personal life circumstances in such a way that would facilitate avoidance of HIV infection. For example, few women considered themselves to be at risk for HIV infection even when they recognized that their husbands had engaged in risk-related behaviors (e.g., contracting for the services of commercial sex workers). Focus group discussions clarified the relationship between knowledge about HIV/AIDS, assessment of personal risk, use of condoms, and prevention strategies in general. Areas of misperception and confusion were identified, as well as potential vehicles for and content of AIDS health promotion initiatives. Results are currently being used to design health promotion interventions to reduce the spread of HIV.