The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of closed-head-injured patients

Brain Inj. 1994 May-Jun;8(4):357-61. doi: 10.3109/02699059409150986.


This double-blind study sought to discover if cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), which is a known treatment of depression, anxiety and insomnia in non-head-injured patients, could be an effective, drug-free treatment of stress-related symptoms in the closed-head-injured (CHI) patient. In this study 10 CHI patients treated for 45 min daily, 4 days a week for 3 weeks, responded significantly on all negative mood factors of the Profile Of Mood States, while five sham-treated and six placebo controls did not. While the majority of the patients were known seizure cases, no patient suffered a seizure during CES therapy. No placebo effects were found, nor were any negative effects from CES treatment seen.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Anxiety Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / psychology
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / rehabilitation*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Depressive Disorder / rehabilitation
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy*
  • Head Injuries, Closed / psychology
  • Head Injuries, Closed / rehabilitation*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neurocognitive Disorders / psychology
  • Neurocognitive Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Personality Inventory