Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders, and is due to mutations within the NF1 gene on chromosome 17q11.2. Only the middle 400 amino acids of the associated protein (neurofibromin) have a known function, comprising a GTPase-activating-protein (GAP) domain. The large gene size and the fact that approximately half of cases are due to new mutation render mutation analysis difficult. NF1 direct mutation characterization is important for development of DNA diagnostic procedures, analysis of phenotype/genotype correlations, and delineation of functions for specific domains of neurofibromin. We report two mutations detected using PCR amplification of individual exons followed by heteroduplex analysis. One is a single base deletion in exon 24 which is predicted to result in a protein truncated early in the GAP-related domain. The other is a 6-bp deletion in exon 39 which is predicted to result in loss of two amino acids in the mature protein near the carboxy-terminus. The exon 24 mutant allele was shown to be expressed by RNA PCR analysis. The exon 39 mutation suggests that those two amino acids are important in neurofibromin function, perhaps indicating a functional domain.