Integrative Transformation of the Mycotoxin-Producing Fungus, Penicillium Paxilli

Curr Genet. 1994 Jun;25(6):508-13. doi: 10.1007/BF00351670.


A high frequency transformation system has been developed for Penicillium paxilli using pAN7-1. Up to 44% of the primary transformants were heterokaryons. Loss of hygromycin resistance was observed in primary transformants that were sub-cultured on non-selective media, but single spores of these primary transformants were mitotically stable on both selective and non-selective media. A molecular analysis of the transformants generated showed that 78% had single-site integrations, with half of these containing a single copy of pAN7-1. CHEF-gel electrophoresis showed that P. paxilli has at least six chromosomes with a total genome size of about 23.4 Mb.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomes, Fungal
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics
  • Hygromycin B / pharmacology
  • Indoles / metabolism*
  • Penicillium / drug effects
  • Penicillium / genetics*
  • Penicillium / metabolism
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / genetics
  • Plasmids
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Transformation, Genetic*


  • Indoles
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • paxilline
  • Hygromycin B
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • hygromycin-B kinase