Interleukin 1 is released by murine macrophages during apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri

J Clin Invest. 1994 Sep;94(3):1328-32. doi: 10.1172/JCI117452.


Peritoneal macrophages undergoing apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri infection release the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1), but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Wild type shigella causes a very fast and significant release of IL-1 from prestimulated peritoneal macrophages, before the cell's integrity is compromised. Both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are released, IL-1 beta in its mature processed form. IL-1 is released from presynthesized cytoplasmic pools. These results demonstrate that bacteria-induced apoptosis of macrophages may play an active role in vivo by releasing IL-1, which in turn mediates an early inflammatory response in epithelial tissues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Biological Assay
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Escherichia coli
  • Interleukin-1 / analysis
  • Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis*
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / analysis
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / immunology*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / microbiology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Shigella flexneri / pathogenicity*


  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides