Permittivities of fresh fruits and vegetables at 0.2 to 20 GHz

J Microw Power Electromagn Energy. 1994;29(2):81-93. doi: 10.1080/08327823.1994.11688235.


Permittivities, moisture contents, tissue densities, and total soluble solids data were determined for samples of twenty-three kinds of fresh fruits and vegetables at 23 degrees C. Permittivities were measured at 41 frequencies between 200 MHz and 20 GHz with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and a microwave network analyzer. Results of the permittivity measurements are presented graphically, and dielectric constant and loss factor values at six frequencies across the range are tabulated along with sample descriptions and moisture, density, and total soluble solids data. Although specific values differ, the dielectric constant decreases steadily with increasing frequency, dropping more rapidly at frequencies above 5 GHz. Values for the loss factor decrease as frequency increases above 200 MHz to a broad minimum in the 1- to 3-GHz region and then increase again as the frequency approaches 20 GHz. The dielectric behavior of the fruit and vegetable tissues appears to be influenced by ionic conductivity and bound water relaxations at the lower frequencies and by free water relaxation at the higher end of the frequency range.

MeSH terms

  • Fruit*
  • Microwaves*
  • Vegetables*