Stretching exercises: effect on passive extensibility and stiffness in short hamstrings of healthy subjects

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Sep;75(9):976-81.


Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles have been experimentally determined and the effects of stretching exercises have been evaluated. Fourteen volunteers, aged 20 to 38 years (mean 27.3) were selected from a young healthy population with the toe-touch test (finger-ground distance greater than 0cm), and a straight-leg-raising angle about 80 degrees. According to usual standards the diagnosis was short hamstrings. One group of seven subjects was treated during 4 weeks with a daily home exercise program aimed at stretching the hamstrings, whereas the untreated group was used as a control. Instrumental straight-leg-raising was performed in the subjects of both groups. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined with the Student's t-test. Comparison of the data obtained before and after the muscle stretching program showed a slight but significant increase in the extensibility of the hamstrings accompanied with a significant increase of the stretching moment tolerated by the passive hamstring muscles. However, the elasticity remained the same. It is concluded that stretching exercises do not make short hamstrings any longer or less stiff, but only influence the stretch tolerance.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Elasticity
  • Electromyography
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Home Care Services
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Muscular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Muscular Diseases / rehabilitation*
  • Range of Motion, Articular*
  • Thigh