Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia-inducible factor 1

J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 23;269(38):23757-63.


Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates erythropoietin gene transcription in Hep3B cells subjected to hypoxia. HIF-1 activity is also induced by hypoxia in non-erythropoietin-producing cells, suggesting a more general regulatory role. We now report that RNAs encoding the glycolytic enzymes aldolase A (ALDA), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), and pyruvate kinase M were induced by exposure of Hep3B or HeLa cells to inducers of HIF-1 (1% O2, cobalt chloride, or desferrioxamine), whereas cycloheximide blocked induction of glycolytic RNAs and HIF-1 activity. Oligonucleotides from the ALDA, PGK1, enolase 1, lactate dehydrogenase A, and phosphofructokinase L (PFKL) genes, containing sequences similar to the HIF-1 binding site in the erythropoietin enhancer, specifically bound HIF-1 present in crude nuclear extracts or affinity-purified preparations. Sequences from the ALDA, PFKL, and PGK1 genes containing HIF-1 binding sites mediated hypoxia-inducible transcription in transient expression assays. These results support the role of HIF-1 as a mediator of adaptive responses to hypoxia that underlie cellular and systemic oxygen homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Consensus Sequence
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase / genetics
  • Glycolysis*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia / metabolism*
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology*
  • Phosphoglucomutase / genetics
  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • HIF1A protein, human
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase
  • Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase
  • Phosphoglucomutase