An epidemiological survey of self-reported memory complaints and memory performance [assessed with Benton's visual-retention test (BVRT) and the Wechsler paired-associates test (WPAT)] was undertaken in a community sample of 2,726 noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65 and over living in Gironde (southwestern France). A significant relationship was observed between the presence of self-reported memory problems and lower performance on the BVRT and the WPAT. However, beyond this relationship, there was significant discordance between the two evaluations, explained in part by the fact that the correlates of memory functioning were not related with similar strength to self reports and to actual performance. In general, females and subjects who scored above the depressive symptomatology threshold reported more problems, while lower performances were related to older age and low educational level. The discordance between self reports and actual performance may suggest anosognosia of mild memory deficits and could possibly be a predictor of future intellectual deterioration.