1. Responses in renal function and in water permeability of skin and bladder to wet and dry environments are accomplished within the range of normal hydration of the amphibian organism. 2. Urine production is discontinued at moderate dehydration. 3. Strong dehydration is needed to raise plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT). 4. Surgical interference with hypophysial function may repress water balance responses because of pars distalis dysfunction, with no clear effect of elimination of pars nervosa function. 5. Antidiuretic hormones, along with adrenergic agonists, may be potent stimulators of the water permeability of membranes of variable permeability, such as skin of terrestrial anurans. 6. AVT does not play a key role in amphibian water economy, but may exert a modulatory role in the control of renal function, secondary to nervous control.