We prospectively studied 132 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to determine the cross-sectional prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis. All patients had serum CD4+ lymphocyte counts to determine the degree of immune dysfunction. Correlations between CD4+ counts, the presence of cytomegalovirus retinitis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy, and ocular symptoms were made. The study disclosed that 26 of 132 patients with AIDS (20%) had cytomegalovirus retinitis. However, subset analysis according to CD4+ count disclosed that in patients with CD4+ counts of 50 cells/mm3 or less, 26 of 87 (30%) had cytomegalovirus retinitis, whereas in patients with CD4+ counts of 50 cells/mm3 or more, none of 45 was noted to have cytomegalovirus retinitis. Similarly, 46 of 132 patients (35%) were noted to have HIV-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy, with a trend toward increasing prevalence associated with declining CD4+ count. In patients with CD4+ counts of 50 cells/mm3 or less, 39 of 87 (45%) had HIV-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy, whereas seven of 45 patients (16%) with CD4+ counts of 50 cells/mm3 or more were noted to have these changes. We confirmed the clinical impression that cytomegalovirus retinitis and HIV-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy are late manifestations of AIDS, demonstrated an increased risk for patients with low CD4+ counts, and suggested a basis for coherent chemoprophylaxis and screening strategies for cytomegalovirus retinitis.