Insulin-dependent diabetes was observed in a woman, aged 29, 4 years after transplantation of bone marrow from her HLA-identical brother with insulin-dependent diabetes. Both had classic symptoms and insulin dependency from onset. At diagnosis of diabetes the recipient was positive for high-titre islet cell antibodies (ICA) whereas she had been ICA negative before transplantation. Chromosomal analyses verified that all circulating leucocytes were of male donor type. These findings suggest transfer of insulin-dependent diabetes by bone marrow cells and confirm the immune nature of the disease.