We have investigated gene amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) gene in 30 primary breast tumor samples and 15 gynecological tumor samples. Ten percent of the breast tumors showed 2- to 4-fold amplification. Amplification was found more frequently in estrogen- and progesterone-receptor-positive tumors and in tumors with high lymph-node involvement. Breast tumor samples were also analyzed for the amplification of fgfr3 and erbB2 genes and the chromosome 11q13 located genes hst1/int2/bcl1/sea. erbB2 gene was amplified 2- to 13-fold in 13% of the cases, but no amplification of int2/hst1/bcl1/sea amplicon was found. Gynecological tumors were also analyzed for the amplification of fgfr4 and fgfr3 genes and for int2 and hst1 oncogenes. Eleven of the 15 gynecological tumors were ovarian neoplasms including 2 benign tumors; the remainder comprised 1 ovarian metastasis of breast cancer; 1 endometrial cancer; 1 uterine leiomyosarcoma and 1 carcinosarcoma of the fallopian tube. In gynecological tumors, fgfr4 gene was found to be amplified in 2 ovarian tumors. Amplification of hst1 was found in 1 benign ovarian tumor. Thus, the fgfr4 gene may be involved in breast and ovarian tumorigenesis.