Certain features of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) suggest the tumour is antigen-responsive. Given the close association between gastric MALT lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori, these organisms might be evoking the immunological response, and eradication of H pylori might inhibit the tumour. 6 patients in whom biopsies showed histological and molecular-genetic evidence of low-grade gastric B-cell MALT lymphoma with H pylori infection were treated with antibiotics. In all cases H pylori was eradicated and in 5, repeated biopsies showed no evidence of lymphoma. These results suggest that eradication of H pylori causes regression of low-grade B-cell gastric MALT lymphoma, and that anti-H-pylori treatment should be given for this lymphoma.