Dynamics of organelles in the mitotic spindles of living cells: membrane and microtubule interactions

Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1993;26(1):19-39. doi: 10.1002/cm.970260104.


The distribution and dynamics of the membranous organelles in two cell types were investigated during cell division. Live cells (either PtK2 or LLC-PK1) labeled with the vital dye 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide [DiOC6(3)] were observed via serial optical sectioning with the laser-scanning confocal microscope. Z-series of labeled, dividing cells were collected every 1-2 minutes throughout mitosis, beginning at prophase and extending to the spreading of the daughter cells. Membrane distribution began to change from the onset of prophase in both cell types. When the mitotic spindle formed in prometaphase, fine tubular membranes, similar to those extending out to the edges of interphase cells aligned along the kinetochore spindle fibers. The lacy polygonal network typical of interphase cells persisted beneath the spindle, and a membrane network was also associated with the dorsal layer of the cell. As PtK2 cells reached metaphase, their spindles were nearly devoid of membrane staining, whereas the spindles of LLC-PK1 cells contained many tubular and small vesicular membranous structures. X-Z series of the LLC-PK1 metaphase spindle revealed a small cone of membranes that was separated from the rest of the cytoplasm by kinetochore MTs. In both cell types, as chromosome separation proceeded, the interzone remained nearly devoid of membranes until the onset of anaphase B. At this time the elongating interzonal microtubules were closely associated with the polygonal network of endoplasmic reticulum. Cytokinesis caused a compression, and then an exclusion of organelles from the midbody. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-tubulin antibodies suggested that spindle membranes were associated with microtubules throughout mitosis. In addition, taxol induced a dense and extensive collection of small vesicles to collect at the spindle poles of both cell types. Nocodazole treatment induced a distinct loss of organization of the membranous components of the spindles. Together these results suggest that microtubules organize the membrane distribution in mitotic cells, and that this organization may vary in different cell types depending on the quantity of microtubules within the spindle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anaphase / physiology
  • Animals
  • Carbocyanines
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / physiology
  • Cell Membrane / ultrastructure
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Epithelium / physiology
  • Epithelium / ultrastructure
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Kidney / cytology
  • Kidney / physiology
  • Kidney / ultrastructure*
  • Macropodidae
  • Metaphase / physiology
  • Microscopy / methods
  • Microtubules / chemistry
  • Microtubules / physiology*
  • Microtubules / ultrastructure
  • Mitosis / physiology
  • Nocodazole / pharmacology
  • Organelles / physiology*
  • Organelles / ultrastructure
  • Paclitaxel / pharmacology
  • Prophase / physiology
  • Spindle Apparatus / physiology*
  • Spindle Apparatus / ultrastructure
  • Swine
  • Tubulin / analysis


  • Carbocyanines
  • Tubulin
  • 3,3'-dihexyl-2,2'-oxacarbocyanine
  • Paclitaxel
  • Nocodazole