Persons with AIDS who have CD4+ counts < or = 100 and transplant patients, especially bone marrow allograft recipients, may experience clinically significant infections with acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Patients who have received prior repeated acyclovir treatment appear to be at the highest risk of harboring acyclovir-resistant strains. Algorithms for the management of these infections were developed at a recent roundtable symposium. The consensus of the panelists was that treatment with foscarnet should be initiated within 7-10 days in patients suspected to have acyclovir-resistant HSV or VZV infections. Foscarnet therapy should be continued for at least 10 days or until lesions are completely healed.