Strongyloides stercoralis is an important cause of severe pulmonary infection and death in many areas of the world [1, 2]. The nematode is endemic in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, where infection rates may exceed 6% of the population [1, 3-7]. Although pulmonary symptoms from strongyloidiasis can be mild, consisting only of cough and bronchospasm, the potential for severe pulmonary disease and adult respiratory distress syndrome is great in certain persons at high risk for strongyloidiasis [1, 2]. Unfortunately, pulmonary strongyloidiasis is seldom diagnosed until late in the course of the disease, which contributes to a high death rate [1, 2, 5, 8]. We review the clinical and imaging features of pulmonary strongyloidiasis and emphasize clues that can lead to earlier diagnosis, recognition of complications, and prompt treatment.