Serum IgG anti-GM1 antibodies have been reported to occur in a variety of disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic polyneuropathies. Of over 5,000 serums tested in our laboratory, high titers of selective IgG anti-GM1 antibodies (> 1:1,000) and without binding to sulfatide were found in 35 patients. Clinical correlation revealed that almost all patients had axonal, motor neuropathies. One subgroup was comprised of individuals with an acute motor neuropathy, described either as an acute axonal Guillain-Barré-like syndrome that was occasionally associated with a prodrome of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis or as Chinese paralysis syndrome. A second group of patients had chronic asymmetric lower motor neuron (LMN) syndromes with no conduction block or other evidence of demyelination. The presence of selective high-titer IgG anti-GM1 antibody reactivity in serum is uncommon but when present is strongly associated with acute axonal motor neuropathies or chronic asymmetric LMN syndromes.