Retrospectively, were tested maternal-neonatal factors of 47 newborn with neonatal abstinence syndrome comparing them with a control group of 100 newborn, during the period from 1985 to 1991. An average incidence of 6/1000 living newborn were affected by abstinence syndrome. The mothers were young (75%), smokers (74%), unemployed (80%), with a high rate of previous abortions (21%) and with a bad pregnancy control. Within our environment, abstinence syndrome increase has been detected among children of young gypsy mothers. Heroin (88%) was the most popular drug. Nevertheless a change has been noted in the last few years in the drug administration going from intravenous to the inhalational route. The duration of syndrome was less in the newborn whose mothers had inhaled heroin and in the premature newborn. It was proved that there was a high rate of HIV (40%), hepatitis B (23%), and syphilis markers (25%).