The normal mycoflora of commodities from Thailand. 1. Nuts and oilseeds

Int J Food Microbiol. 1993 Dec;20(4):211-26. doi: 10.1016/0168-1605(93)90166-e.


A comprehensive study was carried out of the fungi occurring in commodities normally traded in Thailand. Samples of major commodities were obtained from farmers' stocks and middlemen in major producing areas throughout the country. Retail samples were obtained from outlets in and around Bankok. Samples were divided into two portions, one being examined in Bangkok, and the second in Sydney. After surface disinfection, fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar, dichloran 18% glycerol agar, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar. Figures for percentage infection were calculated, and fungi were isolated and identified to species level. In all 602 samples were examined, and at North Ryde about 18,000 fungal isolates identified. Data obtained from 329 samples are reported here, comprising maize (154), peanuts (109), cashews (45) and copra (21). Major fungi in maize included Fusarium moniliforme (present in 97% of samples), Aspergillus flavus (85%), Penicillium citrinum (67%), Aspergillus niger (64%), Lasiodiplodia theobromae (58%) and Fusarium semitectum (45%). In peanuts, the major fungi were Aspergillus flavus (95% of samples), Aspergillus niger (86%), Rhizopus oryzae (60%), Eurotium rubrum (51%), Macromina phaseolina (49%), Penicillium citrinum (46%) and Eurotium chevalieri (46%). Invasion in cashews was lower, major fungi being Aspergillus flavus (60%), Nigrospora oryzae (58%), Aspergillus niger (53%), Chaetomium globosum (47%) and Eurotium chevalieri (40%). Aspergillus flavus (86% of samples) was again dominant in copra, with Rhizopus oryzae (52%), Aspergillus niger (43%), Eurotium chevalieri (43%) the only other species exceeding 40% infection. Aspergillus parasiticus was rarely seen, and Aspergillus nomius was reported from foods for the first time.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arachis / microbiology
  • Aspergillus flavus / growth & development
  • Aspergillus flavus / isolation & purification
  • Cocos / microbiology
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Fungi / growth & development
  • Fungi / isolation & purification*
  • Fusarium / growth & development
  • Fusarium / isolation & purification
  • Nuts / microbiology*
  • Seeds / microbiology*
  • Thailand
  • Zea mays / microbiology