With the aim of searching for HLA haplotypes and non-B27 allele frequency variations in Sardinian AS patients, HLA-A, B, Cw, DR, DQ and Bf, C4A and C4B typing and haplotype assignment was carried out in the families of 25 AS patients and in 44 healthy individuals, all B27 heterozygotes. In the AS patients a significant increase of the A2, Cw2, B27, DR2, DQ1 haplotype was found. This depends only partially on the linkage disequilibrium existing in the Sardinian population between B27 and the other alleles of this haplotype, and rather seems to be due to a primary association of Cw2 and DR2 alleles with AS. Preliminary data seem to show that this haplotype bears the S31 complotype and the DRB1*1601 allele both in the AS patients and in the healthy controls. The pathogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.