Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study

Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan;17(1):37-44. doi: 10.2337/diacare.17.1.37.

Abstract

Objective: To study the effects of a low dose of omega-3 fatty acids on platelet function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

Research design and methods: We performed a randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study of a low dose of omega-3 fatty acids (2.5 g/day) in 20 ambulatory subjects with NIDDM. Subjects ingested five 1-g fish oil capsules each containing 0.5 g omega-3 fatty acids or five 1-g safflower oil capsules per day for 6 weeks followed by a 6-week washout period.

Results: Nine subjects completed the study in each group. Both groups exhibited moderate control of glucose levels; modest elevations in baseline total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels; and normal blood pressure values. In the fish oil group, plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels increased significantly. Fish oil significantly reduced the slope of the dose-response curves for collagen-induced platelet aggregation to one-third the value observed with safflower oil. No difference was observed in collagen-induced production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2, measured as the stable derivative TXB2), or in adenosine-5'-diphosphate- (ADP) induced platelet aggregation or TXA2 generation. Patients with high initial collagen-induced platelet TXA2 production showed a significantly larger drop after fish oil than safflower oil. Fish oil significantly reduced TG levels by 44 mg/dl and decreased upright systolic blood pressure (sBP) by 8 mmHg compared with safflower oil. Fish oil caused a significant but small increase in HbA1c (0.56%) and total cholesterol (20 mg/dl) but had no effect on fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels.

Conclusions: Small doses of fish oil inhibit platelet aggregation and TXA2 production, reduce upright sBP and TG levels, and have only a small effect on glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with moderately controlled NIDDM. Small quantities of omega-3 fatty acids or dietary fish are safe and potentially beneficial in NIDDM patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Platelets / metabolism
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy
  • Dietary Fats*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Energy Intake
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use*
  • Fish Oils
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Platelet Aggregation
  • Posture
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Safflower Oil
  • Thromboxane B2 / blood
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Fish Oils
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Thromboxane B2
  • Safflower Oil
  • Cholesterol